Ber Qurban Adalah Bukti Ketaatan Kepada Allah SWT

 

Cahaya Qur’an Sidoarjo – Sebentar lagi umat Islam akan menjalankan Hari Raya Idul adha atau lebih dikenal dengan Hari Ber qurban. Dimana Perintah Ber Qurban ini sebagaimana Kisah Nabi Ibrahim Alaihis Salam dengan Putranya yaitu Nabi Ismail Alaihis Salam. Pada perayaan ini, umat Muslim yang mampu dianjurkan untuk berkurban dengan  binatang kambing, domba, maupun sapi.

Makna Qurban 

Kata tersebut berasal dari bahasa Arab qariba – yaqrabu – qurban wa qurbanan wa qirbanan yang artinya dekat. Menurut istilah, kurban bermakna menyembelih hewan dengan tujuan beribadah kepada Allah pada Hari Raya Haji atau Iduladha serta tiga Hari Tasyriq, yaitu tanggal 11, 12, dan 13 bulan Dzulhijah.

Wajib bagi yang Mampu

Rasulullah shalallahu’alaihi wasallam telah bersabda ” Barangsiapa yang memiliki kelapangan untuk berkurban, namun dia tidak berkurban, maka janganlah ia mendekati tempat sholat kami.” HR Ibnu Majah, Ahmad dan Al Hakim.

Kurban juga ditentukan sebagai ibadah yang memiliki hukum sunah muakkad. Imam Malik dan Imam al-Syafi’i juga mengukuhkan hal ini. Tetapi, Imam Abu Hanifah menyebutkan bahwa ibadah tersebut hukumnya wajib bagi yang mampu dan nggak dalam keadaan bepergian, seperti ditulis nu.or.id (25/8/2017).

akan tetapi, makna dari kata “mampu” tidak dibatasiMaksudnya, ketika seseorang memiliki banyak harta, baik tunai maupun non tunai, maka dia wajib berkurban. Lalu, perempuan dan laki-laki nggak memiliki perbedaan dalam beribadah kurban, seperti dikutip dari cnnindonesia.com (30/8/2017). Jika memang mampu, ibadah tersebut wajib dilaksanakan.

Syarat Muslim yang Berkurban

Seseorang yang berniat untuk berkurban harus memenuhi beberapa persyaratan berikut ini:
– Muslim: Kurban merupakan salah satu cara untuk mendekatkan diri kepada Allah SWT. Oleh sebab itu, non muslim tidak memiliki kewajiban untuk berkurban.
– Mampu: Perintah berkurban lebih dianjurkan kepada umat muslim yang mampu secara finansial untuk membeli hewan qurban. Seseorang dianggap mampu berkurban jika telah menyelesaikan kewajiban nafkah terhadap keluarganya.
– Baligh dan Berakal: Ibadah qurban ditujukan untuk orang dewasa yang berakal sehat. Maka, orang yang belum baligh dan tidak berakal tidak dibebani kurban.

Syarat Berkurban yang Sah saat Idul Adha Menurut Syariat

Hewan-hewan tersebut harus memenuhi persyaratan berikut ini:
– Hewan ternak (sapi, unta, kambing, atau domba)
– Cukup umur (kambing harus berusia 1 tahun atau lebih, sapi dan kerbau – -minimal berusia 2 tahun, dan unta minimal 5 tahun.
-Kondisi fisik yang prima (sehat, gemuk, tidak cacat, tidak pincang, dan tidak buta)

Syarat Pelaksanaan Kurban

Penyembelihan hewan kurban baru boleh dilakukan setelah sholat Idul Adha pada 10 Dzulhijjah dan 11, 12, 13 Dzulhijjah (hari Tasyrik). Dan kurban yang dilakukan pada hari pertama sebelum matahari terbenam hukumnya sunah.
Orang yang berkurban diperbolehkan untuk menyembelih hewan kurbannya sendiri. Jika tidak mampu, ia dapat diwakilkan oleh seorang muslim yang paham terhadap adab serta tata cara penyembelihan.
Secara umum, tata cara penyembelihan hewan qurban yang memenuhi ketentuan adab adalah membaca bismillah, membaca sholawat nabi, menghadap ke arah kiblat, membaca takbir 3x, tidak memperlihatkan alat potong pada sembelihan, menggunakan pisau tajam agar tidak menyakiti hewan, serta tidak boleh mematahkan leher hewan sebelum benar-benar mati.
Syarat Pembagian Daging Kurban
Syarat Berkurban yang Sah saat Idul Adha Menurut Syariat (2)
Warga mempersiapkan daging kurban di LDII Bali, Denpasar. Foto: Jamal Ramadhan/kumparan
Hewan kurban yang telah disembelih hendaknya segera dibagikan kepada shahibul qurban (orang yang berkurban) dan fakir miskin. Menurut pendapat sebagian besar ulama yang didasarkan pada hadis, pembagiannya adalah sebagai berikut:

  • 1/3 untuk orang yang berqurban
  • Bagian 1/3 untuk sedekah
  • 1/3 untuk dihadiahkan
  • Ulama Syafi’iyyah berpendapat bahwa kurban yang diterima orang miskin berstatus tamlik (hak kepemilikan secara penuh) sehingga kurban yang diterima bisa dikonsumsi sendiri, dijual, disedekahkan, dan lain sebagainya.
    Sementara itu, kurban yang diterima orang kaya bukan menjadi hak milik secara utuh. Ia hanya diperbolehkan menerima kurban untuk alokasi yang bersifat konsumtif sehingga tidak boleh djual.

 

Ketaatan Nabi Muhammad SAW kepada Allah Subhanahu Wata’ala terhadap Perintah Qurban

Begitu pun dengan nabi terakhir, Nabi Muhammad SAW. Nabi Muhammad selalu berkurban setiap setiap tahun.

Mulai dari kambing hingga puluhan ekor unta, Nabi Muhammad menyembelih hewan kurbannya dengan tangannya sendiri. Seperti dalam sebuah hadits yang diriwayatkan oleh Ibnumajah.

“Nabi menyembelih dua ekor kambing belang (putih hitam) dan bertanduk, lalu beliau membaca basmallah dan bertakbir. Sungguh aku telah melihat beliau menyembelih hewan kurbannya dengan tangannya sendiri sambil meletakkan kakinya di atas leher hewan kurbannya”. [HR. Ibnumajah].

Hewan kurban Nabi Muhammad biasanya adalah kambing kibasy bertanduk, jantan, dan berwarna putih hitam namun lebih dominan warna putihnya. Pada satu waktu, Nabi Muhammad menyembelih hewan kurban untuk umatnya seperti diriwayatkan Jabir bin ‘Abdillah RA.

Dia berkata “Saya menghadiri salat Idul-Adha bersama Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam di mushalla (tanah lapang). Setelah beliau berkhotbah, beliau turun dari mimbarnya dan didatangkan kepadanya seekor kambing. Kemudian Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam menyembelihnya dengan tangannya, sambil mengatakan: Dengan nama Allah. Allah Maha Besar. Kambing ini dariku dan dari orang-orang yang belum menyembelih di kalangan umatku”.

Pada lain waktu, Nabi Muhammad juga pernah berkurban 100 ekor unta. Hal ini dilakukan pada tahun terakhir pelaksanaan haji sebelum beliau meninggal.

Beliau menyembelih 63 ekor unta sesuai dengan umurnya saat itu. Sedangkan sisanya disembelih oleh Ali bin Abi Thalib RA. Selain menyembelih hewan kurban untuk umatnya semasa hidup, Nabi Muhammad juga menyembelih kurban sapi atas nama istri-istrinya.

Daging dari hewan-hewan kurban itu pun kemudian dibagikan kepada para umat yang membutuhkan.

 

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